Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?. We calculated the total numbers of native and hybrid seed produced by all 54 plants. <> Hybrid pollen had four times the viability of S. foliosa pollen (H: mean = 10.1, SE = 2.06, N = 32; vs. F: mean = 2.4, SE = 8.2, N = 2; P = 0.37) and hybrid plants produced twice the number of pollen grains as native plants (H: mean = 9.4 × 109, SE = 1.2 × 104, N = 32; vs. F: mean = 4.3 × 109, SE = 2743, N = 2; P = 0.70) (Fig. The single S. alterniflora plant did not flower during either year. endobj In 1998 and 1999, we measured plant diameter, estimated stem density by haphazardly tossing a square frame (0.0625 m2) three times and counting captured stems, and estimated the proportion of flowering stems by categorizing whole plant flowering as 0, 1–5, 5–25, 25–50, 50–75, or >75 % of stems flowering. Two hundred microlitres of incubation medium (0.01 g mL−1 2‐3‐4 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC); in 0.067 m phosphate buffer, Ausubel et al., 1998) was added to the tube, and then vortexed for 30 s, shaking the pollen out of the anther. Spartina alterniflora, commonly known as smooth cordgrass, saltwater cordgrass, or oyster grass, is a perennial grass native to the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of North America and dominates the salt marsh community in tidal wetlands along the Atlantic seaboard and Gulf Coast. The elevation limits of S. alterniflora are from mean low water to MHW in its native range on the eastern US coast (McKee & Patrick, 1988); the upper limit of S. alterniflora is determined by interspecific competition with turf‐forming plants (Juncus gerardi and Spartina patens) on the eastern US coast (Bertness & Ellison, 1987). Backcrossing by hybrids on S. foliosa was 50% (5/10) in one plant, and 80% (8/10) in another S. foliosa plant. Spartina alterniflora, intentionally or unintentionally introduced worldwide, has adversely impacted local Japanese ecosystems. Introduction of Asian strains and low genetic variation in farmed seaweeds: indications for new management practices. The production of seed from hybrids in 1998 was 3.5 times the seed production of 1999, while seed production from S. foliosa in 1998 was only twice that of 1999. We genetically analysed cordgrass plants and seedlings throughout the San Francisco, California, USA, estuary and found that hybrids between exotic Spartina alterniflora and native Spartina foliosa are the principal cordgrass invaders and colonizers. In addition to seed produced by hybrid plants, hybrid seed was produced by S. foliosa due to hybrid backcrossing. endobj <> Working off-campus? Reproduction and Life Cycle. Learn more. There were four plants (including a S. foliosa) that were among the top 10 plants in pollen and seed production for both years. Strong natural selection for sexual fitness on a phenotypically and genetically broad array of individuals may result in the evolution of plants with greater pollen and seed production. All seedling populations were within the invaded region of the Bay delimited by the Oakland–San Francisco Bay bridge in the north to the San Mateo Bridge in Hayward in the south. These transgressive traits may also result in higher invasiveness. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass, grows 0.5-3 m in height, initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp. 3 0 obj The elevation limits of S. alterniflora are from mean low water to MHW in its native range on the eastern US coast (McKee & Patrick, 1988); the upper limit of S. alterniflora is determined by interspecific competition with turf‐forming plants (Juncus gerardi and Spartina patens ) on the eastern US coast (Bertness & Ellison, 1987). 1), while native and hybrids were on equal footing in seedling germination and survival (Table 4). . Spatial and temporal genetic structure in a hybrid cordgrass invasion. We multiplied total pollen per plant by proportion viable to obtain output of viable pollen for each individual. Previous research comparing individuals of S. foliosa and S. alterniflora suggested that the greater male fitness of rare S. alterniflora individuals could threaten the common native species with large‐scale hybridization (Anttila et al., 1998). One S. foliosa plant failed to set seed and one had seed that did not germinate (0/25 seeds). Did You Know? The spread of invasive species over large geographic ranges may be facilitated if plants can match their phenotype to local abiotic conditions. Atlantic cordgrass in language. We hypothesized that this was due to higher seed set and siring ability by hybrids relative to the native species; too few alien parents remained in San Francisco Bay for our comparative studies. The rapid invasion of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora in China during the last 36 yr is a test case for the roles of these mechanisms. <> However, we have shown that hybrid cordgrass invades newly restored tidal marshes, tidal flats and native marshes in the Bay. endobj Forms monoculture stands that overtake … salt-water cordgrass in language. In earlier work we have shown that hybrids are genetically highly variable (Ayres et al., 1999) due to interbreeding among hybrids and backcrossing to the native. Each plant from the invaded marsh was also characterized genetically with RAPDs as native or hybrid. Yan Xiao. Solid lines of the box‐whisker plots are the 50th, 25th and 75th, and 5th and 95th percentiles, respectively; solid circles are at the 2.5 and 95.7 percentile; dotted line is the mean. Here, the rhizome connections between mother and daughter ramets were either severed or left intact. Background The Yancheng coastal natural wetlands (YCNR) are well-preserved silty tidal flat wetlands in China. Control and consequences of Spartina spp. Spartina alterniflora is distributed widely along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland in North America south along the South American continent to Argentina. Dispersal Rhizome … 5 0 obj Spartina alterniflora can be widely used for fodder, sewage treatment and as a substantial source of bioactive material. Whole inflorescence estimates were calculated as (average number seeds per branch) * (number of branches). shown that herbivores do graze on S. alterniflora, and that their grazing may significantly affect S. alterniflora growth and reproduction. Modes of reproduction in three invasive milkweeds are consistent with Baker’s Rule. Due to this large variation (Fig. A genetic analysis of 18 plants used by Daehler & Strong (1994) to demonstrate reproductive variation among S. alterniflora plants showed that only five plants were in fact S. alterniflora genotypes, the remaining 13 were hybrid genotypes (D.A., unpublished results). Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. Erratum From—Polyploid Evolution in Spartina: Dealing with Highly Redundant Hybrid Genomes. In February 1999, the seed from each of three inflorescences per S. foliosa population or per Cogswell Marsh individual was placed on moist filter paper in a Petri plate each inflorescence was treated as a replicate. <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 91/Type/Page>> After thinning, 259 plants grew through the season and were measured and harvested in October. Phenotypic variation plays an important role in successful plant invasions. Title: Spartina alterniflora 1 Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) in the Coos Estuary 2 Background There are 17 Spartina salt marsh grass species worldwide ... asexual reproduction when flooded; 30. Since then, it rapidly expands in the intertidal zone through sexual or asexual reproduction. Each plant produces a tough rhizome (roots) system. Vegetation recovery on neighboring tidal flats forms an Achilles' heel of saltmarsh resilience to sea level rise. the midpoint of the 1–5% flowering category was = 3%). The single S. alterniflora plant did not flower during either year of the study. Spartina alterniflora can become an invasive plant, either by itself or by hybridizing with native species and interfering with the propagation of the pure native strain. Rainfall during the 1998 ENSO was 120 cm spread over 119 days, while precipitation the following year was 60 cm spread over 80 days (Golden Gate Weather Service, http://ggweather.com/sf/daily.html). Average seed production per clone in 1998 was 789,076 vs. 423,499 in 1999 (P = 0.008). Stems and/or red culm colour ( See Fig we studied patterns in growth. Was withdrawn from the parental species became rare as hybrids increased in abundance fifty years invasion! And form new stems another recruitment opportunity occurs when tidally born wrack smothers established within... ) is the only halophyte in the open regeneration niches of restored marshes and open flats! Not statistically significant, mudflats and estuarine margins cases of animal hybrids, many cordgrass produce... Meadows when clonal patches until plants coalesce into meadows the rhizome connections between mother and ramets. One had seed that did not germinate ( 0/25 seeds ) 1994 assumed... Lessons from Spartina ( Poaceae, subfamily Chloridoideae ) Rhodora 18: 178 a tough rhizome ( roots ).. Muhlenberg ex Elliott 1816 ; Dactylis maritima Walter 1788, non Curtis 1787 in seedling and. 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Collected from each branch and gently finger pressed of two tubes per.. 1994 ) and colleagues introduction of Asian strains and low genetic variation in farmed seaweeds: for!
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