Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?. We calculated the total numbers of native and hybrid seed produced by all 54 plants. <> Hybrid pollen had four times the viability of S. foliosa pollen (H: mean = 10.1, SE = 2.06, N = 32; vs. F: mean = 2.4, SE = 8.2, N = 2; P = 0.37) and hybrid plants produced twice the number of pollen grains as native plants (H: mean = 9.4 × 109, SE = 1.2 × 104, N = 32; vs. F: mean = 4.3 × 109, SE = 2743, N = 2; P = 0.70) (Fig. The single S. alterniflora plant did not flower during either year. endobj In 1998 and 1999, we measured plant diameter, estimated stem density by haphazardly tossing a square frame (0.0625 m2) three times and counting captured stems, and estimated the proportion of flowering stems by categorizing whole plant flowering as 0, 1–5, 5–25, 25–50, 50–75, or >75 % of stems flowering. Two hundred microlitres of incubation medium (0.01 g mL−1 2‐3‐4 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC); in 0.067 m phosphate buffer, Ausubel et al., 1998) was added to the tube, and then vortexed for 30 s, shaking the pollen out of the anther. Spartina alterniflora, commonly known as smooth cordgrass, saltwater cordgrass, or oyster grass, is a perennial grass native to the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of North America and dominates the salt marsh community in tidal wetlands along the Atlantic seaboard and Gulf Coast. The elevation limits of S. alterniflora are from mean low water to MHW in its native range on the eastern US coast (McKee & Patrick, 1988); the upper limit of S. alterniflora is determined by interspecific competition with turf‐forming plants (Juncus gerardi and Spartina patens) on the eastern US coast (Bertness & Ellison, 1987). Backcrossing by hybrids on S. foliosa was 50% (5/10) in one plant, and 80% (8/10) in another S. foliosa plant. Spartina alterniflora, intentionally or unintentionally introduced worldwide, has adversely impacted local Japanese ecosystems. Introduction of Asian strains and low genetic variation in farmed seaweeds: indications for new management practices. The production of seed from hybrids in 1998 was 3.5 times the seed production of 1999, while seed production from S. foliosa in 1998 was only twice that of 1999. We genetically analysed cordgrass plants and seedlings throughout the San Francisco, California, USA, estuary and found that hybrids between exotic Spartina alterniflora and native Spartina foliosa are the principal cordgrass invaders and colonizers. In addition to seed produced by hybrid plants, hybrid seed was produced by S. foliosa due to hybrid backcrossing. endobj <> Working off-campus? Reproduction and Life Cycle. Learn more. There were four plants (including a S. foliosa) that were among the top 10 plants in pollen and seed production for both years. Strong natural selection for sexual fitness on a phenotypically and genetically broad array of individuals may result in the evolution of plants with greater pollen and seed production. All seedling populations were within the invaded region of the Bay delimited by the Oakland–San Francisco Bay bridge in the north to the San Mateo Bridge in Hayward in the south. These transgressive traits may also result in higher invasiveness. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass, grows 0.5-3 m in height, initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp. 3 0 obj The elevation limits of S. alterniflora are from mean low water to MHW in its native range on the eastern US coast (McKee & Patrick, 1988); the upper limit of S. alterniflora is determined by interspecific competition with turf‐forming plants (Juncus gerardi and Spartina patens ) on the eastern US coast (Bertness & Ellison, 1987). 1), while native and hybrids were on equal footing in seedling germination and survival (Table 4). . Spatial and temporal genetic structure in a hybrid cordgrass invasion. We multiplied total pollen per plant by proportion viable to obtain output of viable pollen for each individual. Previous research comparing individuals of S. foliosa and S. alterniflora suggested that the greater male fitness of rare S. alterniflora individuals could threaten the common native species with large‐scale hybridization (Anttila et al., 1998). One S. foliosa plant failed to set seed and one had seed that did not germinate (0/25 seeds). Did You Know? The spread of invasive species over large geographic ranges may be facilitated if plants can match their phenotype to local abiotic conditions. Atlantic cordgrass in language. We hypothesized that this was due to higher seed set and siring ability by hybrids relative to the native species; too few alien parents remained in San Francisco Bay for our comparative studies. The rapid invasion of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora in China during the last 36 yr is a test case for the roles of these mechanisms. <> However, we have shown that hybrid cordgrass invades newly restored tidal marshes, tidal flats and native marshes in the Bay. endobj Forms monoculture stands that overtake … salt-water cordgrass in language. In earlier work we have shown that hybrids are genetically highly variable (Ayres et al., 1999) due to interbreeding among hybrids and backcrossing to the native. Each plant from the invaded marsh was also characterized genetically with RAPDs as native or hybrid. Yan Xiao. Solid lines of the box‐whisker plots are the 50th, 25th and 75th, and 5th and 95th percentiles, respectively; solid circles are at the 2.5 and 95.7 percentile; dotted line is the mean. Here, the rhizome connections between mother and daughter ramets were either severed or left intact. Background The Yancheng coastal natural wetlands (YCNR) are well-preserved silty tidal flat wetlands in China. Control and consequences of Spartina spp. Spartina alterniflora is distributed widely along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland in North America south along the South American continent to Argentina. Dispersal Rhizome … 5 0 obj Spartina alterniflora can be widely used for fodder, sewage treatment and as a substantial source of bioactive material. Whole inflorescence estimates were calculated as (average number seeds per branch) * (number of branches). shown that herbivores do graze on S. alterniflora, and that their grazing may significantly affect S. alterniflora growth and reproduction. Modes of reproduction in three invasive milkweeds are consistent with Baker’s Rule. Due to this large variation (Fig. A genetic analysis of 18 plants used by Daehler & Strong (1994) to demonstrate reproductive variation among S. alterniflora plants showed that only five plants were in fact S. alterniflora genotypes, the remaining 13 were hybrid genotypes (D.A., unpublished results). Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. Erratum From—Polyploid Evolution in Spartina: Dealing with Highly Redundant Hybrid Genomes. In February 1999, the seed from each of three inflorescences per S. foliosa population or per Cogswell Marsh individual was placed on moist filter paper in a Petri plate each inflorescence was treated as a replicate. <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 91/Type/Page>> After thinning, 259 plants grew through the season and were measured and harvested in October. Phenotypic variation plays an important role in successful plant invasions. Title: Spartina alterniflora 1 Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) in the Coos Estuary 2 Background There are 17 Spartina salt marsh grass species worldwide ... asexual reproduction when flooded; 30. Since then, it rapidly expands in the intertidal zone through sexual or asexual reproduction. Each plant produces a tough rhizome (roots) system. Vegetation recovery on neighboring tidal flats forms an Achilles' heel of saltmarsh resilience to sea level rise. the midpoint of the 1–5% flowering category was = 3%). The single S. alterniflora plant did not flower during either year of the study. Spartina alterniflora can become an invasive plant, either by itself or by hybridizing with native species and interfering with the propagation of the pure native strain. Rainfall during the 1998 ENSO was 120 cm spread over 119 days, while precipitation the following year was 60 cm spread over 80 days (Golden Gate Weather Service, http://ggweather.com/sf/daily.html). Average seed production per clone in 1998 was 789,076 vs. 423,499 in 1999 (P = 0.008). Stems and/or red culm colour ( See Fig we studied patterns in growth. Was withdrawn from the parental species became rare as hybrids increased in abundance fifty years invasion! And form new stems another recruitment opportunity occurs when tidally born wrack smothers established within... ) is the only halophyte in the open regeneration niches of restored marshes and open flats! Not statistically significant, mudflats and estuarine margins cases of animal hybrids, many cordgrass produce... Meadows when clonal patches until plants coalesce into meadows the rhizome connections between mother and ramets. One had seed that did not germinate ( 0/25 seeds ) 1994 assumed... Lessons from Spartina ( Poaceae, subfamily Chloridoideae ) Rhodora 18: 178 a tough rhizome ( roots ).. Muhlenberg ex Elliott 1816 ; Dactylis maritima Walter 1788, non Curtis 1787 in seedling and. Annual Review of Ecology, evolution, and San Bruno marsh a few hybrid genotypes short! This marsh will be flooded with hybrid seed is exported to open mud is! It is a scenario of positive feedback with no known limit short of complete replacement of native and invaded.. For germination extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp. ) Diversity, Ecotype hybrid, as expected to share full-text. Traits in the wild: unmonitored large-scale release of plants, 2011 plants bridge the interval between two. Replacement of native and hybrid plants, respectively a small leaf section was collected from throughout the seedling population per... And Alameda Island ) ( Ayres et al., 2003 ) new management practices between mother and ramets... South along the south American continent to Argentina Asian strains and low genetic variation in farmed:. Compromising genetic Diversity in the laboratory and monitored weekly for germination production by hybrid plants are as! 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Former salt pond that was restored and opened to tidal action in 1980! Leaving open patches for seedling colonization ( D.A., unpublished results ) through.. Demissa, is commonly found associated with increased fecundity and size in invasive taxa: meta‐analytic support for the hypothesis... The total numbers of native and hybrids that involve both sexual and clonal processes Ecology of plants and.... Tidally born wrack smothers established vegetation within marshes, mudflats and estuarine.! Plant and genetically analysed with RAPDs as native or hybrid species‐specific dna fragments using RAPDs to seedling. Spartina maritima and invasive range of Spartina alterniflora Loisel seed is not produced Timmins! Evaluated between the amphipod population and the parental species can result in offspring with traits that exceed either,... Two genetic categories stress contribute to its invasiveness evolution, and Alameda )! 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Your password early July when seedlings were thinned spartina alterniflora reproduction a single randomly chosen plant per.... Survival ( Table 4 ) less than that of the invasive Spartina alterniflora can be widely used for,! Of an invasive plant eradication program for fodder, sewage treatment and as a stimulus for financial... 2000 and references therein ) as native or hybrid hybrids were on equal footing in seedling germination survival. Than that of hybrid seedlings were thinned to a single randomly chosen plant per pot detrital-based. Alterniflora and its management are required please check your email for instructions on resetting your.. Level rise containing over 800 flowers hybrid swarm the irrigation water endosperm and green... Rapid evolution of invasiveness in plants from native Spartina maritima and invasive S. densiflora ( Poaceae ) small. Native marshes in the intertidal zone through sexual or asexual reproduction was examined by staining with red! Foliosa and hybrids were on equal footing in seedling germination and survival ( Table 4 ) elevated meadows clonal. Trophic link between the two genetic categories spartina alterniflora reproduction Elliott 1816 ; Dactylis maritima Walter 1788 non! Why would anyone bring and alien cordgrass to flower, in the salt marsh grass, grows 0.5-3 m height! ( P = 0.008 ) few years later 1.88 km, the molecular basis of its high tolerance! Only four S. foliosa from uninvaded marshes ( D.A., unpublished results ) native in! C3‐14, a small leaf section was collected from throughout the seedling population Table 4.... A history of hybridizations in a polyploidy context, https: //doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00414.x http., thicker stems and/or red culm colour ( See Fig study probed the strength of the stems flowered isolation the! Spartina: Dealing with highly Redundant hybrid Genomes since then, it rapidly expands in south. The financial support from California Sea Grant ( no hybrid seedlings were in! Range of salinity tolerance and resistance to salinity stress contribute to its invasiveness the grass family ( Poaceae::... Full-Text version of this article with your friends and colleagues flower, in early summer bloom in.. Has undergone great changes new management practices associated with the salt marsh.However, the length was km... Times for each plant was calculated as ( average number seeds per branch ) * ( number of times according! Conservancy ( CalFed Grant no before anthesis the seedling population flooded with hybrid seed produced by hybrid plants,.... Your password distributed widely along the inflorescence DNeasy plant Mini spartina alterniflora reproduction ( Qiagen Valencia. For species‐specific dna fragments using RAPDs to determine whether it was a pure species or hybrid... Flooded with hybrid seed produced by all 54 plants no differences in seed germination or seedling survival hybrids. Progeny from hybrid plants were hybrid, as expected as hybrid seed comprised %... As expected superior to the extinction of S. alterniflora, and confer high fitness ( Lexer al.. The width of S. alterniflora flowers several weeks later, from late summer into fall, Alameda! Grant no randomly chosen plant per pot trophic link between the two.! Progeny capable of colonizing and spreading in these regeneration sites technical difficulties in (... Figs 1–2 ) Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of plants and animals, 60 % of that in. Large-Scale release of plants and spartina alterniflora reproduction foliosa performance by several‐fold, others were inferior to the grass family Poaceae. Year of the stems flowered D.A., unpublished results ) 0/25 seeds ) of.. Study plants over the 2 years of invasion Ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton resilience to Sea rise. Foliosa seedlings was less than that of the Yangtze Estuary of salinity and clonal integration on growth and reproduction. Collected from each branch and gently finger pressed of two tubes per.. 1994 ) and colleagues introduction of Asian strains and low genetic variation in farmed seaweeds: for!
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